A shot or bypass feeder is normally used to feed chemicals to a closed loop or other low makeup water systems.
It consists of a small tank, usually constructed of steel, equipped with an inlet, outlet, drain, and vent. A feeder also has an enlarged opening
or includes a funnel for the manual addition of chemicals. It provides the user with a convenient point to introduce chemicals manually into a
circulating water system.
A manual feed program has certain disadvantages when used on systems where makeup requirements vary. Manual feed programs require periodic testing
of the water being treated and frequent addition of chemicals to maintain treatment levels. Over-treatment, which is costly, is sometimes necessary
to maintain optimum chemical residuals over a long period of time. Also, this type of program is easily neglected when manpower is short.
A chemical feed pump injects treatment into the cooling water. It has an adjustable capacity to inject relatively small amounts of chemical accurately
against system operating pressures.
Positive displacement chemical feed pumps include many different types: rotary gear, peristaltic, progressive cavity, and reciprocating, (piston and diaphragm).
The most commonly used type is the reciprocating diaphragm pump. These pumps operate either mechanically or electronically.
A continuous feed system requires a chemical pump and is, therefore, a more cost effective system. By feeding chemical automatically, it reduces operator chemical handling.
There is a definite safety advantage also. Continuous feed with just a chemical pump is suited to a system with a constant load and where makeup, flow rates,
and bleed-off fluctuates very little. However, if loads vary, this systems will either undertreat or overtreat because it cannot react automatically to operating
A conductivity controller is commonly used in condenser water systems to maintain cycles of concentration and to activate chemical feed. It consists of an electronic
control panel with one or more set points and a probe. Since conductivity varies directly with the total dissolved solids (TDS) in a system, a suitable TDS level can be
maintained by having the controller activate a bleed-off valve at a desired set point. By automatically limiting the TDS level in this manner, the controller should maintain
impurities at soluble levels while feeding enough chemical to prevent scale formation on heat transfer surfaces.
Conductivity controlled feed and bleed system is best suited for a system having no appreciable water losses other than controlled bleed and evaporation. The system automatically
controls water quality and can adjust to load variations and incoming water quality changes.
However, if the cooling water system has uncontrolled water losses, conductivity controlled feed and bleed will not provide good chemical residual levels. The probe must be cleaned
periodically to insure correct conductivity measurement.
Water meter based feed consists of an electric contacting head and automatic reset timer. This is installed on cooling system makeup water lines to regulate chemical pumps and/or
bleed valves. The meter is normally a standard totalizing meter with a special gear train and cam operated switch. The cam on the gear closes a switch after a preselected quantity
of water has been metered. This switch closure activates the automatic reset timer, and thus, a makeup signal proportional to flow is created which activates chemical feed and bleed-off
This is the most sophisticated system of the five types mentioned above. It embodies chemical feed regulated by proportional flow and bleed-off controlled by conductivity readings.
The flow proportional chemical feed and conductivity controlled bleed system requires a conductivity controller, electrically activated valve, water meter with electric contact head,
automatic reset timer, and chemical pump. This control system combines the advantages of the two previously described systems: it reacts to load changes, system water losses, and changes
in makeup water quality. The only disadvantages are the system's relatively high cost and the periodic cleaning of the conductivity controller probe.
A Programmable Timer programs a chemical feed pump to supply dosages of chemicals on a daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly or more frequent basis. Application of Biocide treatments are
commonly administered in this manner in conjunction with a controller.
Programmable Timers may be mechanically, electronically or digitally driven. They are designed to activate a switch which operates an electrical device, primarily a pump or in the case of solid
checmicals, a solenoid, which feeds the product to the system in a timely manner.
A flow tee insures a known constant flow rate on bleed lines. It also can be used to protect water meters from overfeeding. It regulates water flow at a constant rate over a specified
pressure range. The flow tee is available in many sizes to supply the necessary flow rate for a variety of system sizes.
The flow tee can be used with any number of the above systems to control feed and/or bleed.
Used in condenser water systems requiring pH adjustment. Monitors the pH of the recirculating water and activates acid or caustic feed systems (depending on the desired pH of system water)
to adjust pH to a preset level.
The controller consists of an electronic control panel with one or more set points and a probe assembly.
Allows higher cycles of concentration. Usually used in conjunction with flow proportional to water meter feed, and conductivity bleed. Must be closely monitored because a malfunction can yield
In those systems utilizing an oxidizing biocide, ORP (Oxidation/Reduction Potential) is used to control the level of biocide in the system.
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